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Frans Hals

Frans Hals

Male 1580 - 1666  (86 years)

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  • Name Frans Hals 
    Born 1580  Antwerp, , Antwerpen, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Buried Sep 1666  Haarlem, Noord Holland, Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • Frans is buried at St. Bavo Church in Haarlem.
    Died 1 Sep 1666  Haarlem, Noord Holland, Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • He died September 1, 1666, in what is now the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem.
    Notes 
    • From 1612 onwards Frans Hals was a member of Haarlem´s Civic Guard of St George. He is listed in the register of members as 'Frans Hals, painter' and there is a letter M by his name, which means that his weapon was a musket. Hals´s membership no doubt influenced the officers in 1616 when it came to awarding the prestigious commission for the first civic guard painting. (He had 8 children with wife Lysbeth Reyniers.)

      In the course of his long career Frans Hals painted many of these pendant portraits of men and women.
      http://www.franshalsmuseum.nl

      "The first outstanding master of free Holland, Frans Hals, was forced to lead a precarious existence. Hals belonged to the same generation as Rubens. His parents had left the southern Netherlands because they were Protestants and had settled in the prosperous Dutch city of Haarlem. We know little about his life except that he frequently owed money to his baker or shoemaker. In his old age - he lived to be over eighty."
      http://tinyurl.com/dvpx8

      Frans Hals was the leading painter in seventeenth-century Haarlem, a Dutch city whose prosperity derived from brewing beer and weaving luxurous fabrics. Although Hals painted some scenes of daily life, he was primarily a portraitist. His large group portraits of the civic guards and the directors of charitable institutions, all of which remain in Holland, are especially famous.

      Avoiding flattery, Hals depicted his sitters with a lively candor that appealed to their robust, informal tastes. Having recently won political independence and the freedom to worship in the new Protestant faith, the United Netherlands was also immensely wealthy from overseas trade. Dutch burghers, while taking great pride in material possessions, retained the fairly simple, straightforward lifestyles of the merchant classes.

      By strict religious law, these early Protestants wore only black and white clothing, regardless of the expense of the textiles. Hals turned the stark outfits to an advantage, using the neutral clothes to set off his sitters' complexions against pale tan or dark gray backgrounds.
      http://tinyurl.com/8shdb

      Biography

      Frans Hals was the great 17th-century portraitist of the Dutch bourgeoisie of Haarlem, where he spent practically all his life. Hals evolved a technique that was close to impressionism in its looseness, and he painted with increasing freedom as he grew older. The jovial spirit of his early work is typified by the Shrovetide Revellers (Merry Company, c. 1615; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). In middle age his portraits grew increasingly sad, revealing sometimes a sense of foreboding (e.g., Nicolaes Hasselaer, 1630-33; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam). The paintings of his old age show best his genius for portraying character (e.g., Man in a Slouch Hat, 1660-66; Staatliche Museen, Kassel).

      Early life and works

      Frans Hals left no written evidence about his life or his works, and only a brief outline of his biography is known. He was the son of a clothworker from Mechelen (Malines) and of a local girl, and the family moved from Spanish-held Flanders to Haarlem in the free Netherlands by 1591 at the latest; the local townhall records give this date for the christening of Frans's younger brother Dirck, who also became a painter. Except for a brief visit to Antwerp in 1616, Hals lived all his life in Haarlem.

      What he did for the first 25 or 30 years of his life is not known. The earliest indication of his activity as an artist was that about 1610 he joined the Guild of St Luke of Haarlem, a body empowered to register artists as masters. Shortly afterward he married his first wife, Annetje Harmensdochter Abeel. She bore him two children before her death in 1615. Two years later, Hals married Lysbeth Reyniers, who was to survive her husband by some nine years. In all, Hals had 10 children, and 5 of his 8 sons became painters. None, however, was of note.

      Tradition has it that Frans Hals was the pupil of Carel van Mander, a minor painter and poet who helped found a successful painting academy at Haarlem. There is no evidence either to support this claim or to refute it. From the beginning, however, Hals's work conflicted with the typical mannerisms of his presumed master. His early work is actually closer in spirit to that of Jacob Jordaens, who was an outstanding Baroque painter from Antwerp and a pupil of Peter Paul Rubens. The good humour of Hals's popular scenes recalls the joyous gatherings painted by the contemporary Dutch followers of the earthy, sensuous Italian painter Caravaggio.

      Frans Hals seems, from the evidence of extant works, to have begun his career with sober portraits and with group portraits of members of the local guilds and military societies. The best of these early works - which already shows complete competence in portraiture - is a monumental painting entitled Banquet of Officers of the Civic Guard of St. George at Haarlem (1616; Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem), painted with a loose brushstroke technique that is unlike anything else in Dutch art of the time. It already has a sense of life and of relationship between the figures that was then unknown in this type of subject matter. By about 1620, however, Hals had begun to introduce into his paintings the jovial spirit that characterized his early works and that portrays with accuracy and enthusiasm one important aspect traditionally ascribed to Dutch character. Many of his portraits are simply pictures of merrymakers. The portrait of Hans Wurst in The Merry Company shows the sitter in a tall, wide-brimmed hat, wearing a necklace made of pig's feet, herrings, and eggs. The portrait of Mr. Verdonck (c. 1627) shows the subject joyfully brandishing the jawbone of a horse. Similar in spirit are the portrait of Peeckelhaering (c. 1628-30) clenching his beer mug, The Merry Drinker, and two later portraits, a picture entitled Malle Babbe (1633-35; Staatliche Museen, Berlin), which portrays an old madwoman laughing, with an owl perched on her shoulder, and a joyful picture in the Louvre Museum of a laughing, carelessly dressed Gypsy Girl (1628-30). In Hals's group portraits, too, the spontaneous joie de vivre that is evident in the individual portraits is felt to a degree that revolutionizes the hitherto austere genre. One such painting is his second Banquet of Officers of the Civic Guard of St George at Haarlem (1627; Frans Halsmuseum), in which the figures take up postures normally employed for the expression of mystical religious rapture to celebrate their well-nourished contentment. In this painting, Hals displays his unmistakable genius for mise-en-scène; the dramatic effects he achieves here set him apart from most other painters. His militiamen are linked in a harmonious composition that makes the viewer aware of the cohesion of their group as a whole. Each conducts a dialogue with his neighbour, and here and there one figure is made purposely to disrupt the scheme with a gesture or a glance in the viewer's direction. Nothing is happening except a meal shared by typical members of the Dutch middle class and their conversations. Yet there is a majesty to this scene that is equal to any depiction of an incident from the life of a king. This painting also hints at the sense of mysterious spirituality, which, fostered by the artist's intimate knowledge of his subjects, came with his maturity to thread its way into his absolute realism.

      By the 1620s Hals had definitively evolved a technique that was close to impressionism in its looseness. Like the contemporary Spanish painter Diego Velázquez, he used colour to structure forms; and this use of colour is what sets the two artists apart from their contemporaries. Unique to Hals, however, is his use of quick, loose strokes of bright colour that suggest rather than enclose form and are highly expressive of movement and of the subjects' vitality. Most painters of the 17th century approached their paintings slowly, with preparatory drawings, a certain amount of underpainting, and an elaborate finish. Although there is no certain evidence of his method, Hals seems to have started directly on the canvas and painted quickly, leaving his first spontaneous expression, which is almost an oil sketch, as the finished work. Hals continued to use this technique, which gave a striking immediacy to his perceptive portrayals of character, all his life, painting with increasing freedom as he grew older.

      It has often been suggested that Frans Hals's life resembled the lives of the bon vivants he portrayed at the beginning of his career. It is true that from 1616 he began to incur claims from creditors, and he was in financial difficulties most of his life. He belonged, however, to the Haarlem St George militia company and was a member of the Haarlem De Wijngaertranken ("Society of Rhetoricians") in 1618-19; both of these facts are quite inconsistent with the romantic picture of dissipation that traditionally has been associated with the painter. Moreover, the stern preachers and theologians, the high-ranking officials, the surgeons, the admirals, the writers, and the respectable shopkeepers whose portraits Hals painted in great numbers were not likely to have posed for a dissolute person.

      Later life and works

      At any rate, the joviality began to disappear from the paintings of Hals's middle age. In the portraits painted after he reached the age of 40, the subjects seem to eye the world knowingly, with a shade of sadness in their faces. The earliest portrait that strongly shows this quality is Man with Arms Crossed (1622). Others follow that contain the same theme: The Laughing Cavalier (1624; Wallace Collection, London), Portrait of Isaac Abrahamszoon Massa (1626; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto), Pieter van den Broecke (1633), Nicolaes Hasselaer, Willem van Heythuyzen (c. 1637-39; Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels), and Daniel van Aken Playing the Violin (c. 1640; National Museum, Stockholm). These portraits seem to reveal a sense of foreboding; still, their mood ranges somewhere above the midpoint in the "human comedy." The period from 1630 to 1650 was Hals's most productive. He was very popular among the staid citizens of Haarlem's middle class, and during this time he painted more than 100 single portraits and 6 group and family portraits.

      Frans Hals lived to be very old, and it is in the paintings of his old age that his genius for portraying human character is fully revealed. The last years of his life were difficult materially, and he was harassed by discouraging family problems. Although he continued to work steadily, he received markedly fewer commissions after 1650. He had, during his long career, achieved an impressive reputation; he had been honoured by many important commissions, had become in 1644 an officer of the Guild of St Luke, and in 1649 had painted the philosopher René Descartes. Still, although some continued to value his subtle perceptions, the public had generally begun to favour a more elegant style made popular by the portrait painter Anthony Van Dyck in England. What commissions he did receive were not enough to support him, and, like his two great compatriots Rembrandt and Vermeer, he saw his possessions sold at auction for debt (1654). It was not until 1662 that his right to public assistance was recognized, and he was accorded a yearly pension by the city. In spite of this adversity the portraits of Hals's last 16 years are his masterpieces. At this point, a view of the world is revealed in his painting in which the human comedy takes a tragic turn, and something breaks in the order that had kept the reasonable man and the madman separated. His portraits, no longer tempered by laughter, seem to express a realization that simply being is enough, after a certain age, for life to impress its tragic seal.

      Henceforth, Hals drew gradually closer to traditional subjects and stored away his drinking glasses and his tableware. At the same time he diminished the intensity, the vividness of his themes, a greater simplicity appeared in his compositions, and he took more and more liberty with his painting. His palette lost a good deal of its lustre. But through decades of work he had evolved a remarkably broad range of blacks and whites to choose from, and these colours were sufficient for what he wanted to show.

      From 1650 on, his subjects begin almost to look awestruck, and Hals ceases to bind his compositions into powerfully articulated human masses. Instead, he strings the solitude of each figure together on a flimsy thread, with the pattern broken only here and there by some ultimate spark of vitality. The light seems to act as a nervous system in his subjects that whips their drowsy flesh back to life, and the magic of the brushwork seems to startle their faces out of a swoonlike slumber. In the two celebrated portraits of the "Governors of the Old Men's Home at Haarlem" (both 1664; Frans Halsmuseum), one a group of old men and the other of old women, his men seem overcome with drunkenness and his women entranced by the obsession of death. Here he presents us with the most extraordinary reunion of senile decay ever assembled in the history of the pictorial arts; he shows us the quavering flame of dying life. It is not known whether these portraits were comprehensible to his models. Apparently, none of the regents of the home objected to the paintings hanging in their Hall of Honour. Perhaps his subjects shared the old painter's humility in the face of destiny. Thus, the harmony in the colourful blare of the early works came to be succeeded by an art that seemed to give form to elusive nervous twitches, sudden motions, and to heartbeats accelerating, only to falter and start again. All his life Frans Hals had acted as a lucid observer of Haarlem. He painted it in the loud mirth of youth, and, reflecting in the image that he made of it his own life and declining health, he remained its faithful companion until his death.

      Old age fostered self-denial and a strict discipline in Hals, along with a new freedom in his painting. It most certainly was a painful time for the great painter. But the years had also sharpened his vision. There is no sign of religion in the evolution of his art; and it may be assumed that to Frans Hals, painting was a secular concern. Nevertheless, the loving compassion that permeated his art becomes, in his last years, something spiritual.

      Like many artists whose style is unique in their own time, he left few direct followers; the closest was Adriaen Brouwer, who used Hals's techniques well to portray tavern scenes and similar subjects. Hals was for a long time regarded as a competent but limited painter whose consistent neglect of any subjects other than portraits gave him no place in the history of significant art. It was not until the 19th century that interest in his work was revived. He influenced Édouard Manet with his free style and Vincent van Gogh with his subtle range of colours. In modern times he has been appreciated for the serious and excellent realist painter that he was.
      http://tinyurl.com/7ldem

      Biography http://tinyurl.com/d3jwa

      (Note: Few records of Hals' life exist.)

      Hals was born in 1580 or 1581, in Antwerp. In 1585, after Antwerp fell to Spain in the Eighty Years War his family moved to Haarlem in the Northern Low Countries, where he lived the remainder of his life. It wasn't until he was 27 that Hals became a member of the Sint-Lucasgilde (St. Lucas Guild).

      He took painting lessons from Flemish painter Karel van Mander (1548-1606), who had also fled from the Spaniards, but Mander's ideas are not visible in Hals' work. The earliest known of Hals' art is the 1611, Jacobus Zaffius. His 'breakthrough' came in 1616, with the life-size group portrait, The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company.

      Historians have reported that he mistreated his first wife, Anneke Hermansz (Annetje Harmensdochter Abeel), and she died in 1616. Already with two children by Anneke, he married Lysbeth Reyniers in 1617, and they had eight children. He reportedly liked to drink, which led him into the company of people of ill repute.

      Although Hals' work was in demand throughout his life, he experienced financial difficulties. In addition to painting, he worked as an art dealer and restorer. His creditors brought him to court several times, and to settle his debt with a baker in 1652 he sold his belongings. The inventory of the property seized on mentions only three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table and five pictures. Left destitute, the municipality gave him an annuity of 200 forms in 1664.

      At a time when the Dutch nation fought for independence, Hals appeared in the ranks of its military guilds. He was also a member of the Chamber of Rhetoric, and in 1644 chairman of the Painters Corporation at Haarlem.

      Frans Hals died in Haarlem in 1666 and was buried in the city's St. Bavo Church. His widow later died obscurely in a hospital after seeking outdoor relief from the guardians of the poor.

      Artistic career

      Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens. He also painted large group portraits, many of which showed civil guards. He was a Baroque painter, with intimate realism and a radical approach.

      His pictures illustrate the various strata of society into which his life led him - banquets or meetings of officers, sharpshooters, guildsmen, admirals, generals, burgomasters, merchants, lawyers, and clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlefolk, fishwives and tavern heroes.

      In group portraits, such as the Archers of St. Hadrian, Hals captures each character in a different manner. The faces are not idealized and are clearly distinguishable with their personalities revealed in a variety of poses and facial expressions.

      His first master at Antwerp was probably Van Noort but he then entered the atelier of painter and historian Carel van Mander. (Hals owned some Mander paintings, that were amongst the items sold to pay his bakery debt in 1652). He soon improved upon the practice of the time, illustrated by Jan van Scorel and Antonio Moro, and emancipated himself gradually from tradition.

      Hals was fond of daylight and silvery sheen, while Rembrandt used golden glow effects based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Both men were painters of touch, but of touch on different keys - Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble. Hals seized, with rare intuition, a moment in the life of his subjects. What nature displayed in that moment he reproduced thoroughly in a delicate scale of color, and with mastery over every form of expression. He became so clever that exact tone, light and shade, and modelling are obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the brush.

      The only record of his work in the first decade of his independent activity is an engraving by Jan van de Velde copied from lost portrait of The Minister Johannes Bogardus.

      The earliest works by Hals that remain, Two Boys Playing and Singing and a Banquet of the Officers of the St Joris Doele or Arquebusiers of St George (1616), show him as a careful draughtsman capable of great finish, yet spirited withal. The flesh he painted, is pastose and burnished, less clear than it subsequently became. Later, he became more effective, displayed more freedom of hand, and a greater command of effect.

      At this period he painted the full length of Madame van Beresteyn (Louvre), and a full-length portrait of Willem van Heythuysen leaning on a sword. Both these pictures are equalled by the other Banquet of the officers, of the Arquebusiers of St George (with different portraits) and the Banquet of the officers of the Cloveniers or Arquebusiers of St Andrew of 1627 and an Assembly of the officers of the Arquebusiers of St Andrew of 1633. A similar painting, with the date of 1637, suggests some study of Rembrandt masterpieces, and a similar influence is apparent in a picture of 1641 representing the Regents of the Company of St Elizabeth, and in the portrait of Maria Voogt at Amsterdam.
      Jester with a Lute, 1620-1625, canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.
      Enlarge
      Jester with a Lute, 1620-1625, canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris.

      From 1620 till 1640 he painted many double portraits of married couples, on separate panels, the man on the left panel, his wife at his right. Only once did Hals portray a couple on a single canvas: Double Portrait of a Couple, (circa 1623, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam).

      His style changed throughout his life. Vivid colours were gradually replaced by pieces where one colour dominated. Since 1641 he showed a tendency to restrict the gamut of his palette, and to suggest color rather than express it. Later in his life darker tones, even with much black, took over. His brush strokes became looser in later years, fine details became less important than an overall impression. Also where his earlier pieces radiated gaiety and liveliness, his later portraits emphasized the stature and dignity of the people portrayed. This austerity is displayed in Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House and The Regents and Regentesses of the Oudemannenhuis (c. 1664), which are masterpieces of color, though in substance all but monochromes. His restricted palette is particularly noticeable in his flesh tints which from year to year became more grey, until finally the shadows were painted in almost absolute black, as in the Tymane Oosdorp.

      As this tendency coincides with the period of his poverty, historians suggest that one of the reasons, if not the only reason, of his predilection for black and white pigment was the low price of these colors as compared with the costly lakes and carmines.

      As a portrait painter Hals had scarcely the psychological insight of a Rembrandt or Velazquez, though in a few works, like the Admiral de Ruyter, the Jacob Olycan, and the Albert van der Meer paintings, he reveals a searching analysis of character which has little in common with the instantaneous expression of his so-called character portraits. In these, he generally sets upon the canvas the fleeting aspect of the various stages of merriment, from the subtle, half ironic smile that quivers round the lips of the curiously misnamed Laughing Cavalier to the imbecile grin of the Hille Bobbe. To this group of pictures belong Baron Gustav Rothschilds Jester, the Bohemienne and the Fisher Boy, whilst the Portrait of the Artist with his second Wife, and the somewhat confused group of the Beresteyn Family at the Louvre show a similar tendency. Far less scattered in arrangement than this Beresteyn group, and in every respect one of the most masterly of Hals' achievements is the group called The Painter and his Family, which was almost unknown until it appeared at the winter exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1906.

      Many of Hals' works have disappeared, but it is not known how many. According to the most authoritative present-day catalogue, compiled by Seymour Slive in 1970-1974 (Slive's last great Hals exhibition catalogue followed in 1989), another 222 paintings can be ascribed to Hals. Another authority on Hals, Claus Grimm, believes this number to be lower (145) in his 'Frans Hals. Das Gesamtwerk' (1989).

      It is not known whether Hals ever made landscapes, still lifes or narrative pieces, but it is unlikely. Many artists in the 17th century in Holland opted to specialise, and Hals also appears to have been a pure portrait specialist.

      Painting technique

      People often think that Hals ´threw´ his works on 'aus einem Guss' (in one toss) onto the canvas. Further research of a technical and a scientific nature has since clarified that this impression is not correct. True, the odd work was largely put down 'alla prima', i.e. without underdrawings or underpainting, but most of the works were created in various layers, as was customary at that time. Sometimes a drawing was made (with chalk or paint) on top of a coloured undercoat (grey, pink), and was then more or less filled in, in stages. It does seem that Hals generally applied his underpainting very loosely: he was a virtuoso from the beginning. And this applies, of course, particularly to his somewhat later, mature works. Hals displayed tremendous daring, great courage and virtuosity, and had a great capacity to pull back his hands from the canvas (or panel) as soon as the portrayed person was on it, alive and well. He didn't "paint them to death", as many of his contemporaries unfortunately did, in their great accuracy and diligence (whether requested by their clients or not). 'Een onghemeyne [ongewone] manier van schilderen, die hem eyghen is, by nae alle [iedereen] over-treft', ('An unusual manner of painting, all his own, surpassing almost everyone,') wrote his first biographer, Schrevelius, in the 17th century on Hals' painting methods. For that matter, schematic painting was not Hals' own idea (this approach already existed in 16th century Italy), and Hals was probably inspired by Flemish contemporaries (Rubens, Van Dyck) in his painting method.

      As early as the 17th century, people were struck by the vitality of Frans Hals' portraits. For example, Haarlem resident Theodorus Schrevelius noted that Hals' works reflected 'such power and life' that the painter 'seems to challenge nature with his brush'. And centuries later Vincent van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo: 'What a joy it is to see a Frans Hals, how different it is from the paintings - so many of them - where everything is carefully smoothed out in the same manner.' Frans Hals chose not to give a smooth finish to his painting, as most of his contemporaries did, but tried to mimic the vitality of his subject by using smears, lines, spots, lines, spots, large patches of colour and hardly any details. It wasn't until the 19th century that his technique had true followers, particularly among the Impressionists. Pieces such as 'The Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House´ and the civic guard paintings demonstrate this technique to the fullest.

      Influence

      Frans influenced his brother Dirck Hals (born at Haarlem, 1591-1656) who was also a painter. Four of his sons followed in his path and became painters:

      * Harmen Hals (1611-1669)
      * Frans Hals Junior (1618-1669)
      * Reynier Hals (1627-1672)
      * Nicolaes Hals (1628-1686)

      Of the master's numerous family only Franz Hals the Younger (1622-1669) is notable, with images of cottages and poultry. A table laden with gold and silver dishes, cups, glasses and books, is one of his finest works and deserving of a passing glance.

      Quite in another form, and with much of the freedom of the elder Hals, Dirk Hals, his brother, was a painter of festivals and ballrooms. But Dirk had too much of the freedom and too little of the skill in drawing which characterized his brother.

      Other contemporary painters who took inspiration from Frans Hals:

      * Jan Miense Molenaer (1609-1668) and his wife Judith Leyster (1609-1660), Haarlem
      * Adriaen van Ostade (1610-1685), Haarlem
      * Adriaen Brouwer (1605-1638), South Low Countries
      * Johannes Cornelisz Verspronck (1597-1662), Haarlem
      * Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613-1670), Amsterdam

      It is often all too easily suggested that many painters are considered students of Hals. But further study has since shown that there are quite a few questions in that area. In his 'De Groote Schouburgh' (1718-21), Arnold Houbraken mentions Adriaen Brouwer, Adriaen van Ostade and Dirck van Delen as students. Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne (according to his son, he was a Hals student) and Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten (according to a notarised document; he also became a son-in-law of Hals). The Haarlem portrait painter Johannes Verspronck (one of about ten competing portraitists in Haarlem at the time) also possibly studied for some time with Hals. In terms of style, the closest to Hals' work is the handful of paintings that are ascribed to Judith Leyster (which she also often signed). She also 'qualifies' as a possible student, just like her husband, the painter Jan Miense Molenaer. There were probably more, but many painters at that time fell into oblivion. Two centuries after his death, Hals received a number of 'posthumous students'. Claude Monet, Charles Daubigny, Max Liebermann, James Whistler, Gustave Courbet, and in the Netherlands, Jacobus van Looy and Isaac Israëls are some of the Impressionists and realists who have delved deeply into the work of Hals - by making study copies of his work and further building on him. Many of them travelled to the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem (since 1913 on the Groot Heiligland, and before that in the Town Hall), where several of his most important works were (and are) kept. Hals' works have also found their way to countless other cities all over the world and in museum collections. From the late 19th century, they were collected everywhere: from Antwerp to Toronto, and from London to New York. Almost every important art museum with a large old art collection has a Hals. Hals has become one of the classics of Dutch painting history.

      Legacy

      Hals' reputation waned after his death and for two centuries he was held in such poor esteem that some of his paintings, which are now among the proudest possessions of public galleries, were sold at auction for a few pounds or even shillings. The portrait of Johannes Acronius realized five shillings at the Enschede sale in 1786. The portrait of the man with the sword at the Liechtenstein gallery sold in 1800 for 4, 5s.

      Starting at the middle of the 19th century his fame rose again. With his rehabilitation in public esteem came the enormous rise in values, and, at the Secretan sale in 1889, the portrait of Pieter van de Broecke Danvers was bid up to 4,420, while in 1908 the National Gallery paid 25,000 for the large group from the collection of Lord Talbot de Malahide.

      From 1870 to 1920 his paintings served as a model for portrait painters. The French impressionist painter Édouard Manet was profoundly influenced by Hals.

      Many of his paintings were then sold to American collectors, who appreciated his uncritical attitude towards wealth and status.

      A collection of his work is at display in the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem.


      Literature

      The two most important publications about Hals were written by the American art historian Seymour Slive: Frans Hals, 3 dln (oeuvre catalogue), New York / London 1970-1974; Frans Hals (exhibition catalogue Washington/London/Haarlem, 1989. Claus Grimm published his 'Frans Hals. Das Gesamtwerk' in 1989 (Stuttgart/Zürich; also translated into Dutch). Published in the Dutch language in 1988: N. Middelkoop and A. van Grevenstein, Frans Hals. 'Leven, werk, restauratie' (Life, work and restorations) (Haarlem Amsterdam 1988). This work gives an account of restorations of the riflemen's pieces, but it also gives a picture of Hals' life and work. A new book about Hals was recently published: 'Frans Hals in het Frans Hals Museum', by Antoon Erftemeijer; Amsterdam/Gent 2004 (in Dutch, English and French), in which various chapters are devoted to Hals' life, his predecessors, portrait painting in the Golden Age, Hals' painting technique and other subjects. Many pictures with close-ups in this book show Hals' works in great detail. Christopher Atkins recently wrote an article in English on Hals' virtuoso painting style ('Frans Hals's Virtuoso Brushwork', Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 2003, Zwolle 2004, p. 281-309).

      Trivia

      Frans Hals was pictured on the dutch 10 Guilder bank note.

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      Dirck was the younger brother of Frans Hals; he was born in Haarlem in 1591. Frans was probably also his first teacher, but the painters who influenced Dirck were Esaias van de Velde and Willem Buytewech. Apart from a few small portraits, he devoted himself exclusively to the painting of conversation pieces - the cheerful life of prosperous burghers in their houses, gardens, or public places. Dirck was not interested in the serious side of life; in his work he depicted people in conversation or while flirting, making music and dancing, eating and drinking. His interiors are hardly worked out, all the emphasis is put on fashionable dress and colorful representation. He succeeded in rendering people's high spirits through facial expression, costly dress, posture and loose grouping.
      Dirck Hals died in Haarlem in 1656.

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      Between the best retratistas of Baroque the Dutch he even excels the figure of Frans Hals, competing with the own Rembrandt . Hals was born in Amberes in 1580 or 1585. The doubts with respect to the date of birth come from the fluctuations of age that score at the moment of their death: eighty and years according to Weyermans - reason why it would have been born in 1585- or clearing eighty and the six, according to Van der Vinne, reason why it would be born in 1580. He was son of the pañero Franchoys Hals, coming from Malinas, and of Adriaentgen van Geertenrijck, original of Amberes. In this same city a brother of called Frans Joost will be born that also will be painter, although we do not know no his works. From 1585 Franchoys Hals and Adriaentgen van Geertenrijck they do not appear in the censuses of Amberes. Possibly they emigrated, next to a good handful of citizens, when the Spanish troops occupied the city the 17 of August, looking for refuge before more than presumable religious persecutions. The 19 of March of 1591 are baptized in Haarlem a new member of the Hals family, Dirck. This is the first reference to the Hals in the Dutch city, in which Frans will pass the rest of its life. We do not know the date that initiated its artistic learning, scoring towards 1603, taking like teacher to Karel van Mander, remaining in its factory until the death of the teacher, in 1606. In 1610 he appears enrolled for the first time like member of the Guilda of San Lucas de Haarlem, which indicates that from that moment it can exert like independent painter, counting about 25 or 30 years. The following year we have documented its first well-known picture: Jacobus Zaffius. Also in 1611, concretely the 2 of September, are baptized Harmen, the first son of their first marriage. The wife was called Annetje Harmansdr. but we do not know the date in which the wedding was celebrated. Annetje passed away in June of 1615 after giving to light a second son who will die the following year. In 1616 Hals it makes first of his pictures of group, the Banquet of the officials of the Civic Guard of San Jorge, leaving his clients very satisfied with the result. The 6 of August of this Hals year appear mentioned in Amberes; it has problems with justice since it had not paid some pictures that it had bought, which makes think the specialists who dedicated themselves to the art work commerce, like its compatriot Jan Vermeer de Delft . The permanence in Amberes possibly extends until the 15 of November, taking contact with Rubens , one of its favorite painters, although documentation does not exist that credits this encounter. Of return to Haarlem, Hals registers like member of a camera of rhetoricians, Of Wijngaertranken, one of the three existing societies in Haarlem, whose members were dedicated to compose poetries, to organize literary recitales and debates, remaining in its sine until 1625. Also in 1616 it is the first mention like weak person of Hals, in this case with the woman who took care of small both, who asked for the wage due. The 12 of February of 1617 Frans return to contract marriage in the pueblecito of Spaarndam, in the neighborhoods of Haarlem. Her new wife is called Lysbeth Reyniers, member of a modest family, consisting who was illiterate. She will survive his husband and she will have ample prole, not less than eight children, who we do not know the exact dates of birth but their names: Frans, Jan, Adriaentgen, Jacobus, Reyner, Nicolaes, Maria and Pieter, this last deficient one who would annually perceive 50 florins of the hospicio of Santa Isabel if he leaves the city due to his dangerous character. Four of them continued the pictorial race initiated by their father. From 1622 Hals it comprises, like guard, of the civic military service of San Jorge, whose officials it portrays five years again later, the same date that makes the collective picture of the military service of San Adrián. In 1629 the works of cleaning of works of the Confraternidad of San Juan in Haarlem are possibly paid to Hals, being the restoration of paintings made by Geertgen tot Sint Jans, which indicates that it increases of this form his emolumentos to feed his ample prole. In spite of the fame that will reach like retratista from 1630, putting for him the most seeded of the society of Haarlem and its environs, in 1635 insolvente is declared to pay the annual quota of the Guilda of San Lucas, which indicates that their financial problems are on the verge of beginning. Hals has an active factory in the Grote Heiligland, near the Oudemannehuis, the hospicio of old that at the moment is the seat of the Frans Hals Museum. In the first months of 1636 it is mentioned legally to return to Amsterdam with the objective to finalize the fabric of the Company of captain Reynier Reael; when it receives the citation has the swollen leg and responds that the initial agreement makes reference to that the work will be finalized in Haarlem, in Amsterdam, not arguing in addition that its state of health prevents him to move. It is ignored how the complaint finalized, although is certain that the work concluded Peter Codde. The problems with the debts begin to appear with force in the house of the Hals, together with the diminution of orders that arrive at the artist, specially as of 1640. The explanation to this reduction in the elaboration of pictures we must look for it in the appearance of a new retratística fashion between the clients, choosing artists as Bartholomeus goes to der Helst, that contributes a nobler aspect to their models whereas the works of Hals are characterized by a fast invoice, with pinceladas ample and intercrossed, applying the color directly on the linen cloth, without using preparatory drawings. This technique will be left by its contemporaries and recovered in century XIX by Courbet , Manet and the impresionists . In the communal registries of Haarlem reference to the Hals family becomes in 1642 in following the terms: "the woman of Frans Hals, in name of the husband, wishes that their greater daughter is gathered in the hospicio of obligatory work (she entiéndase like a correctional ones) of Haarlem hoping that she reforms". The girl had a son ilegítimo of a certain Abraham Poterloo, son of Susanna Masse. The young people will marry in 1644, the year in which Hals is named receiver of the Guilda of San Lucas, forming part of the body leader of the institution. The economic situation of the Hals is more and more difficult and the debts are accumulated. In order to remove ahead to the Frans family it must be dedicated to the painting commerce, since their pictures quote less and less and the orders are little. Due to its outpost age and to its terrible economic situation, the Guilda of San Lucas de Haarlem exempts to him of the annual quota in 1661. The following year an subsidy of 50 florins is granted to him, as well as one adds additional of 150 florins for 1662. In 1664 him a new subsidy of three wheelbarrows of crowd for the heating, seeing increased the aid will be granted economic that it grants the Treasury to him of the city of Haarlem to 200 florins. The new clients of Hals will be you run of the Hospicio of Santa Isabel, making two magnificent collective pictures what she allows him to leave temporarily afloat, becoming guarantor of their son-in-law Abraham Hendrickzs. Hulst by a sum of 458 florins. Nevertheless, the citizen administration confirms in 1666 the established subsidy two years back, although the painter as soon as it can enjoy it since it passes away the 29 of August of 1666, receiving days later a tomb in the choir of the church of San Bavón where it can be buried. Thus the life of one of the great Dutch retratistas finalizes that enjoyed a high rate of life during the time that received a good handful of orders and that later it had to subsist thanks to the public charity.
      http://tinyurl.com/975wo

      Frans Hals (c. 1580 - August 26, 1666) was a Dutch painter during the Dutch Golden Age. As a portrait painter, considered by some as second only to Rembrandt, in Holland, he displayed extraordinary talent and quickness in his art.

      Biography

      Hals was born in 1580 or 1581, in Antwerp. In 1585, after Antwerp fell to Spain in the Eighty Years War his family moved to Haarlem in the Northern Low Countries, where he lived the remainder of his life. It wasn't until he was 27 that Hals became a member of the Sint-Lucasgilde (St. Lucas Guild).

      He took painting lessons from Flemish painter Karel van Mander (1548-1606), who had also fled from the Spaniards, but Mander's ideas are not visible in Hals' work. The earliest known of Hals' art is the 1611, Jacobus Zaffius. His 'breakthrough' came in 1616, with the life-size group portrait, The Banquet of the Officers of the St George Militia Company.

      Historians have reported that he mistreated his first wife, Anneke Hermansz (Annetje Harmensdochter Abeel), and she died in 1616. Already with two children by Anneke, he married Lysbeth Reyniers in 1617, and they had eight children. He reportedly liked to drink, which led him into the company of people of ill repute.

      Although Hals' work was in demand throughout his life, he experienced financial difficulties. In addition to painting, he worked as an art dealer and restorer. His creditors took him to court several times, and to settle his debt with a baker in 1652 he sold his belongings. The inventory of the property seized mentions only three mattresses and bolsters, an armoire, a table and five pictures. Left destitute, the municipality gave him an annuity of 200 forms in 1664.

      At a time when the Dutch nation fought for independence, Hals appeared in the ranks of its military guilds. He was also a member of the Chamber of Rhetoric, and in 1644 chairman of the Painters Corporation at Haarlem.

      Frans Hals died in Haarlem in 1666 and was buried in the city's St. Bavo Church. His widow later died obscurely in a hospital after seeking outdoor relief from the guardians of the poor.

      Artistic career

      Hals is best known for his portraits, mainly of wealthy citizens. He also painted large group portraits, many of which showed civil guards. He was a Baroque painter, with intimate realism and a radical approach.

      His pictures illustrate the various strata of society into which his life led him - banquets or meetings of officers, sharpshooters, guildsmen, admirals, generals, burgomasters, merchants, lawyers, and clerks, itinerant players and singers, gentlefolk, fishwives and tavern heroes.

      In group portraits, such as the Archers of St. Hadrian, Hals captures each character in a different manner. The faces are not idealized and are clearly distinguishable with their personalities revealed in a variety of poses and facial expressions.

      His first master at Antwerp was probably Van Noort but he then entered the atelier of painter and historian Carel van Mander. (Hals owned some Mander paintings, that were amongst the items sold to pay his bakery debt in 1652). He soon improved upon the practice of the time, illustrated by Jan van Scorel and Antonio Moro, and gradually emancipated himself from tradition.

      Hals was fond of daylight and silvery sheen, while Rembrandt used golden glow effects based upon artificial contrasts of low light in immeasurable gloom. Both men were painters of touch, but of touch on different keys - Rembrandt was the bass, Hals the treble. Hals seized, with rare intuition, a moment in the life of his subjects. What nature displayed in that moment he reproduced thoroughly in a delicate scale of color, and with mastery over every form of expression. He became so clever that exact tone, light and shade, and modelling were obtained with a few marked and fluid strokes of the brush.

      The only record of his work in the first decade of his independent activity is an engraving by Jan van de Velde copied from lost portrait of The Minister Johannes Bogardus.

      The earliest works by Hals that remain, Two Boys Playing and Singing and a Banquet of the Officers of the St Joris Doele or Arquebusiers of St George (1616), show him as a careful draughtsman capable of great finish, yet spirited withal. The flesh he painted, is pastose and burnished, less clear than it subsequently became. Later, he became more effective, displayed more freedom of hand, and a greater command of effect.

      During this period he painted the full-length portrait of Madame van Beresteyn (Louvre), and a full-length portrait of Willem van Heythuysen leaning on a sword. Both these pictures are equalled by the other Banquet of the officers, of the Arquebusiers of St George (with different portraits) and the Banquet of the officers of the Cloveniers or Arquebusiers of St Andrew of 1627 and an Assembly of the officers of the Arquebusiers of St Andrew of 1633. A similar painting, with the date of 1637, suggests some study of Rembrandt masterpieces, and a similar influence is apparent in a picture of 1641 representing the Regents of the Company of St Elizabeth, and in the portrait of Maria Voogt at Amsterdam.

      From 1620 till 1640 he painted many double portraits of married couples, on separate panels, the man on the left panel, his wife at his right. Only once did Hals portray a couple on a single canvas: Double Portrait of a Couple, (circa 1623, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam).

      His style changed throughout his life. Vivid colours were gradually replaced by pieces where one colour dominated. After 1641 he showed a tendency to restrict the gamut of his palette, and to suggest color rather than express it. Later in his life darker tones, even with much black, took over. His brush strokes became looser in later years, fine details became less important than an overall impression. Also where his earlier pieces radiated gaiety and liveliness, his later portraits emphasized the stature and dignity of the people portrayed. This austerity is displayed in Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House and The Regents and Regentesses of the Oudemannenhuis (c. 1664), which are masterpieces of color, though in substance all but monochromes. His restricted palette is particularly noticeable in his flesh tints which from year to year became more grey, until finally the shadows were painted in almost absolute black, as in the Tymane Oosdorp.

      As this tendency coincides with the period of his poverty, historians suggest that one of the reasons, if not the only reason, of his predilection for black and white pigment was the low price of these colors as compared with the costly lakes and carmines.

      As a portrait painter Hals had scarcely the psychological insight of a Rembrandt or Velazquez, though in a few works, like the Admiral de Ruyter, the Jacob Olycan, and the Albert van der Meer paintings, he reveals a searching analysis of character which has little in common with the instantaneous expression of his so-called character portraits. In these, he generally sets upon the canvas the fleeting aspect of the various stages of merriment, from the subtle, half ironic smile that quivers round the lips of the curiously misnamed Laughing Cavalier to the imbecile grin of the Hille Bobbe. To this group of pictures belong Baron Gustav Rothschilds Jester, the Bohemienne and the Fisher Boy, whilst the Portrait of the Artist with his second Wife, and the somewhat confused group of the Beresteyn Family at the Louvre show a similar tendency. Far less scattered in arrangement than this Beresteyn group, and in every respect one of the most masterly of Hals' achievements is the group called The Painter and his Family, which was almost unknown until it appeared at the winter exhibition at the Royal Academy in 1906.

      Many of Hals' works have disappeared, but it is not known how many. According to the most authoritative present day catalogue, compiled by Seymour Slive in 1970-1974 (Slive's last great Hals exhibition catalogue followed in 1989), another 222 paintings can be ascribed to Hals. Another authority on Hals, Claus Grimm, believes this number to be lower (145) in his Frans Hals. Das Gesamtwerk (1989).

      It is not known whether Hals ever painted landscapes, still lifes or narrative pieces, but it is unlikely. Many artists in the 17th century in Holland opted to specialise, and Hals also appears to have been a pure portrait specialist.

      Painting technique

      People often think that Hals 'threw' his works on 'in one toss' (aus einem Guss) onto the canvas. Research of a technical and scientific nature has clarified that this impression is not correct. True, the odd work was largely put down without underdrawings or underpainting ('alla prima'), but most of the works were created in various layers, as was customary at that time. Sometimes a drawing was made with chalk or paint on top of a grey or pink undercoat, and was then more or less filled in, in stages. It does seem that Hals usually applied his underpainting very loosely: he was a virtuoso from the beginning. This applies, of course, particularly to his somewhat later, mature works.

      Hals displayed tremendous daring, great courage and virtuosity, and had a great capacity to pull back his hands from the canvas, or panel, as soon as the person portrayed was on it. He didn't 'paint them to death', as many of his contemporaries did, in their great accuracy and diligence whether requested by their clients or not.

      'An unusual manner of painting, all his own, surpassing almost everyone,' ('Een onghemeyne [ongewone] manier van schilderen, die hem eyghen is, by nae alle [iedereen] over-treft'), wrote his first biographer, Schrevelius, in the 17th century on Hals' painting methods. For that matter, schematic painting was not Hals' own idea (the approach already existed in 16th century Italy), and Hals was probably inspired by Flemish contemporaries, Rubens and Van Dyck, in his painting method.

      As early as the 17th century, people were struck by the vitality of Frans Hals' portraits. For example, Haarlem resident Theodorus Schrevelius noted that Hals' works reflected 'such power and life' that the painter 'seems to challenge nature with his brush'. Centuries later Vincent van Gogh wrote to his brother Theo: 'What a joy it is to see a Frans Hals, how different it is from the paintings - so many of them - where everything is carefully smoothed out in the same manner.' Hals chose not to give a smooth finish to his painting, as most of his contemporaries did, but mimiced the vitality of his subject by using smears, lines, spots, lines, spots, large patches of colour and hardly any details.

      It was not until the 19th century that his technique had followers, particularly among the Impressionists. Pieces such as The Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House and the civic guard paintings demonstrate this technique to the fullest.

      Influence

      Frans influenced his brother Dirck Hals (born at Haarlem, 1591-1656) who was also a painter. Four of his sons followed in his path and became painters:

      * Harmen Hals (1611-1669)
      * Frans Hals Junior (1618-1669)
      * Reynier Hals (1627-1672)
      * Nicolaes Hals (1628-1686)

      Of the master's numerous family members only Franz Hals the Younger (1622-1669) is notable, with paintings of cottages and poultry. A table laden with gold and silver dishes, cups, glasses and books, is considered one of his finest works.

      Quite in another form, and with much of the freedom of the elder Hals, Dirk Hals, his brother, painted festivals and ballrooms. But Dirk had too much of the freedom and too little of the skill in drawing which characterized his brother.

      Other contemporary painters who took inspiration from Frans Hals were:

      * Jan Miense Molenaer (1609-1668)
      * Judith Leyster (wife of Molenaer) (1609-1660), Haarlem
      * Adriaen van Ostade (1610-1685), Haarlem
      * Adriaen Brouwer (1605-1638), South Low Countries
      * Johannes Cornelisz Verspronck (1597-1662), Haarlem
      * Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613-1670), Amsterdam

      Often it is suggested that many painters were students of Hals. But study has since shown that there are quite a few questions surrounding the suggestion. In his De Groote Schouburgh (1718-21), Arnold Houbraken mentions Adriaen Brouwer, Adriaen van Ostade and Dirck van Delen as students. Vincent Laurensz van der Vinne, according to his son, and Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten, according to a notarised document (he also became a son-in-law of Hals) were students of Hals. The Haarlem portrait painter, Johannes Verspronck, one of about 10 competing portraitists in Haarlem at the time, possibly studied for some time with Hals.

      In terms of style, the closest to Hals' work is the handful of paintings that are ascribed to Judith Leyster, which she often signed. She also 'qualifies' as a possible student, just like her husband, the painter Jan Miense Molenaer.

      There were probably more, but many painters of that time fell into oblivion.

      Two centuries after his death, Hals received a number of 'posthumous' students. Claude Monet, Édouard Manet, Charles-François Daubigny, Max Liebermann, James Whistler, Gustave Courbet, and in the Netherlands, Jacobus van Looy and Isaac Israëls are some of the Impressionists and realists who have delved deeply into the work of Hals by making study copies of his work and further building on his techniques and style.

      Many of them travelled to the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem (since 1913 on the Groot Heiligland, and before that in the Town Hall), where several of his most important works were, and are, kept.

      Legacy

      Hals' reputation waned after his death and for two centuries he was held in such poor esteem that some of his paintings, which are now among the proudest possessions of public galleries, were sold at auction for a few pounds or even shillings. The portrait of Johannes Acronius realized five shillings at the Enschede sale in 1786. The portrait of the man with the sword at the Liechtenstein gallery sold in 1800 for 4, 5s.

      Starting at the middle of the 19th century his prestige rose again. With his rehabilitation in public esteem came the enormous rise in values, and, at the Secretan sale in 1889, the portrait of Pieter van de Broecke Danvers was bid up to 4,420, while in 1908 the National Gallery paid 25,000 for the large group from the collection of Lord Talbot de Malahide.

      Hals' works have found their way to countless other cities all over the world and in museum collections. From the late 19th century, they were collected everywhere - from Antwerp to Toronto, and from London to New York. Many of his paintings were then sold to American collectors, who appreciated his uncritical attitude towards wealth and status. Almost every important art museum with a large collection of old art has a Hals painting.

      A collection of his work is at display in the Frans Hals Museum in Haarlem.

      Trivia

      Frans Hals was pictured on the dutch 10 Guilder bank note.

      References

      The two most important publications about Hals were written by the American art historian Seymour Slive: Frans Hals, 3 dln (oeuvre catalogue), New York / London 1970-1974, and Frans Hals (exhibition catalogue Washington/London/Haarlem, 1989.

      Claus Grimm published his Frans Hals. Das Gesamtwerk in 1989 (Stuttgart/Zürich; also translated into Dutch).

      Published in the Dutch language in 1988: N. Middelkoop and A. van Grevenstein, Frans Hals. Leven, werk, restauratie (Life, work and restorations) (Haarlem Amsterdam 1988). This work gives an account of restorations of the riflemen's pieces, but it also gives a picture of Hals' life and work.

      A new book about Hals was recently published: Frans Hals in het Frans Hals Museum, by Antoon Erftemeijer; Amsterdam/Gent 2004 (in Dutch, English and French), in which various chapters are devoted to Hals' life, his predecessors, portrait painting in the Golden Age, Hals' painting technique and other subjects. Many pictures with close-ups in this book show Hals' works in great detail.

      Christopher Atkins recently wrote an article in English on Hals' virtuoso painting style (Frans Hals's Virtuoso Brushwork, Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 2003, Zwolle 2004, p. 281-309).
    Person ID I590609  7_families
    Last Modified 25 Feb 2006 

    Father Franchoijs Hals,   b. Abt 1554, Mechelen, , Antwerpen, Belgium Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Mother Adriaentgen Van Geertennrijck,   b. Abt 1555, Amberes, , Antwerpen, Belgiums Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown 
    Married Abt 1578  , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F214862  Group Sheet

    Family 1 Lysbeth Reyniers,   b. , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1675, , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married Aft 1616  , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 13 Sep 2006 
    Family ID F214863  Group Sheet

    Family 2 Anneke Hermansz,   b. , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Jun 1615, , , Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 13 Sep 2006 
    Family ID F214864  Group Sheet

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    Link to Google MapsBorn - 1580 - Antwerp, , Antwerpen, Belgium Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - Aft 1616 - , , Netherlands Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - Sep 1666 - Haarlem, Noord Holland, Netherlands Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 1 Sep 1666 - Haarlem, Noord Holland, Netherlands Link to Google Earth
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