790 - 851 (61 years)
||Inigo Arista, King of Pamplona, Count of Bigorre |
||King of Pamplona, Count of Bigorre |
||, , Spain
- ‚Išnigo ‚Išniguez Arista (c. 790 Ė 851 or 852) was the first King of Pamplona (c. 824 Ė 851 or 852). He is said by a later chronicler to have been count of Bigorre, or at least to have come from there, but there is no near-contemporary evidence of this. His origin is obscure, but his patronymic indicates that he was the son of an ‚Išnigo. It has been speculated that he was kinsman of Garc‚ia Jim‚enez, who in the late 8th century succeeded his father Jimeno 'the Strong' in resisting Carolingian expansion into Vasconia. He is also speculated to have been related to the other Navarrese dynasty, the Jim‚enez.
His mother also married Musa ibn Fortun ibn Qasi, by whom she was mother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi, head of the Banu Qasi and Moslem ruler of Tudela, one of the chief lords of Valley of the Ebro. Due to this relationship, ‚Išnigo and his kin frequently acted in alliance with Musa ibn Musa and this relationship allowed ‚Išnigo to extend his influence over large territories in the Pyrenean valleys.
The family came to power through struggles with Frankish and Muslim influence in Spain. In 799, pro-Frankish assassins murdered Mutarrif ibn Musa, governor of Pamplona, the brother of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi and perhaps of ‚Išnigo himself. In 820, ‚Išnigo intervened in the County of Aragon, ejecting a Frankish vassal, count Aznar I Gal‚indez, in favor of Garc‚ia el Malo (the Bad), who would become ‚Išnigo's son-in-law. In 824, the Frankish counts Aeblus and Aznar S‚anchez made an expedition against Pamplona, but were defeated in the third Battle of Roncesvalles. The Basque victors are not named, but it was in the context of this defeat that ‚Išnigo is said to have been pronounced "King of Pamplona" in that city by the people. ‚Išnigo was a Christicolae princeps (Christian prince), according to Eulogio de C‚ordoba. However, his kingdom continually played Moslem and Christian against themselves and each other to maintain independence against outside powers.
In 840 his lands were attacked by Abd Allah ibn Kulayb, wali of Zaragoza, leading his half-brother, Musa ibn Musa into rebellion. The next year, ‚Išnigo fell victim to paralysis in battle against the Norse with Musa ibn Musa. His son Garc‚ia acted as regent, in concert with Fort‚un ‚Išniguez, "the premier knight of the realm", the king's brother and also half-brother of Musa. They joined Musa ibn Musa in an uprising against the Caliphate of C‚ordoba. Abd-ar-Rahman II, emir of C‚ordoba, launched reprisal campaigns in the succeeding years. In 843, Fort‚un ‚Išniguez was killed, and Musa unhorsed and forced to escape on foot, while ‚Išnigo and his son Galindo escaped with wounds and several nobleman, most notably Velasco Garc‚es defected to Abd-ar-Rahman. The next year, ‚Išnigo's own son, Galindo ‚Išniguez and Musa's son Lubb ibn Musa went over to C‚ordoba, and Musa was forced to submit. Following a brief campaign the next year, 845, a general peace was achieved. In 850, Mu-sa- again rose in open rebellion, supported again by Pamplona, and envoys of Induo (thought to be ‚Išnigo) and Mitio, "Dukes of the Navarrese", were received at the French court. ‚Išnigo died in the Muslim year 237, which is late 851 or early 852, and was succeeded by Garc‚ia ‚Išniguez.
The name of the wife (or wives) of ‚Išnigo is not reported in contemporary records, although chronicles from centuries later assign her the name of Toda or Oneca. There is also scholarly debate regarding her derivation, some hypothesizing that she was daughter of Velasco, lord of Pamplona (killed 816), and others making her kinswoman of Aznar I Gal‚indez. He was father of the following known children:
* Assona ‚Išniguez, who married her father's half-brother, Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Qasi, lord of Tudela and Huesca
* Garc‚ia ‚Išniguez, the future king
* Galindo ‚Išniguez, fled to C‚ordoba where he was friend of Eulogio of C‚ordoba and became father of Musa ibn Galindo, Wali of Huesca in 860, assassinated in 870 in C‚ordoba
* a daughter, wife of Count Garc‚ia el Malo (the Bad) of Arag‚on.
The dynasty founded by ‚Išnigo reigned for about 80 years, being supplanted by a rival dynasty in 905. However, due to intermarriages, subsequent kings of Navarre descend from ‚Išnigo.
||5 Mar 2012 |
||Mrs. Inigo, d. Yes, date unknown |
|+||1. Garcia Iniguez, King of Pamplona, b. , , Spain , d. 882|
| ||2. Assona Iniguez, d. Yes, date unknown|
| ||3. Galindo Iniguez, d. 870, Cordoba, , Spain |
| ||4. Daughter of Inigo, d. Yes, date unknown|
||1 Feb 2012 |