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Lieutenant Lion Gardiner

Lieutenant Lion Gardiner

Male 1599 - 1665  (66 years)

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  • Name Lieutenant Lion Gardiner  [1
    Title Lieutenant 
    Born 1599  , Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [2
    Gender Male 
    Buried Oct 1665  East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    Died 5 Oct 1665  East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Find all individuals with events at this location  [4
    Notes 
    • There are many sources and whole books written about Lion. We have info in the Conkling Family book, and East Hampton as well as a few pages from "Lion Gardiner and his Descendents" by Curtiss C. Gardiner,1890 which is in the St. Louis Public Library. Here we will give highlights from "Famous Families of New York" by Margherita Arlina Hamm. Lion was born in England and received a more than ordinary education. In his early youth he was a dissenter and friend of the Puritans. He was brave and ambitious. Shortly after coming of age, he volunteered and joined the English army in Holland. This body of men garrisoned several towns and were called upon to perform all kinds of military duties. Here Lion is called "An Engineer and Master of Works of Fortification in the Leaguers of the Prince of Orange in the Low Countries." This was a position of high importance, which necessitated professional skill and technical knowledge on the part of the occupant. While in Holland he was waited on by "certain eminent Puritans acting for a company of Lords and gentlemen in England, who approached him with an offer to go to New England and construct works of fortification and command them.

      Eventually Rev. Hugh Peters, Rev. John Davenport, persuaded him, and some other "well affected Englishmen of Rotterdam." He was to have a salary of one hundred pounds per annum for a term of four years, and himself and family were to receive transportation and subsistence to the place of destination. His work was to consist "only in the drawing, ordering, and making of a city, town and forts of defense under direction of John Winthrop, the younger.

      He and Mary arrived at Boston in November 1635. The ship needed repairs before proceeding to the Connecticut River, where a fort was to be constructed. While waiting, he completed a fort on Fort Hill and was asked to do one in Salem. He visited Salem and returned to Boston to tell the elders that the people of Salem were in far greater danger of Starvation than of any "foreign, potent enemy," and recommended that they defer fortifications for the present and help the town make a livelihood.

      In the spring he went to the mouth of the Connecticut River and built the first fort in that part of the country. It was erected on a steep hill by the riverside and was flanked by salt marshes so only accessible by a sandy beach from the mainland. The walls were made of square hewn timber, with palisade and ditch, and the narrow isthmus was protected by a second palisade. The stonghold was called Saybrooke for Lord Say and Lord Brooke.

      The Pequot, Narragansett, and Mohegan Indians were close to the fort. The Indians attacked and Lion was struck by more than twenty arrows. However, his buff coat preserved him, he had only one injury. The Indians thought he must be dead. Three days later they attacked again. He promptly appeared at the head of the defenders and fired two great guns which caused a "great hubbub among them."

      When Governor Vane wrote to ask the best way to quell the Pequots, Gardiner sent an Indian arrow which had killed one of his men with the head stuck through the man's rib bone. By return ship the Governor sent twenty more men to reinforce the garrison. Gardiner presented a plan to attack the Pequots in their stronghold in Mystic. It was approved and Gardiner, Mason and Underhill led a force of soldiers, Mohegans, and Narragansetts against them. In one brief hour the Pequots were almost exterminated. The Narragansetts then demanded tribute of all tribes in Rhode Island, Connecticut and Long Island. The Montauks of Long Island declined. Wyandanch, their sachem, made friends with Lion and asked for his trade and protection. This led to the securing of Gardiner Island.

      Lion paid one black dog, one gun, a quantity of powder and shot, some rum, and a few Dutch blankets. Lion also received a grant from the royal government creating a manor and lordship.

      The early inhabitants of Saybrook Point were the Algonquin Nehantic Indians. Their name for this place was "Pashbeshauke" -the place at theriver's mouth. About 1600 of these peaceful Indians were conquered by the warlike Pequots, invading from the west. In 1614, the Dutch navigator, Adriaen Block, rounded the Point with his vessel, "The On rust", in his exploration of the Connecticut River as far north as Hartford, and perhaps to the falls at Enfield. For the next decade and more, Dutch fur traders carried on with the Indians a trade which may have reached the large total of 10,000 beaver skins annually. By 1623 the Dutch had purchased strategic present-day Saybrook Point from the Pequots and had even planted here two Flemish Protestant families(Walloons) and six men to maintain a post. The Dutch renamed the location "Kievitt's Hoeck" (Sandpiper Point). However, shortly thereafter trouble with the Indians necessitated withdrawal of these settlers. Dutch claim to the land was continued with a posted notice, and by the intermittent presence of Lieutenant Hans Den Sluys. Meanwhile, fleeing persecution at home, the Puritans of England were establishing settlements at Plymouth and Boston, and were expanding outward in all directions. A race began between the English and the Dutch for possession of the land now comprising the State of Connecticut. In1631, the Earl of Warwick, head of the Plymouth Company established by James I, granted a patent (the "Warwick Patent") to Lard Say and Sele, Lord Brooke, and other Puritan gentlemen, for lands including the Connecticut river valley. The plan was to establish a refuge for "men of qualitie" and Puritan persuasion. The patentees chose John Winthrop, Jr., son of the governor of Massachusetts Bay, as first-year governor of their new colony. For protection against the Dutch and the Indians, they concluded a four-year contract with Lion Gardiner, an English engineer-soldier who had designed fortifications for the Prince of Orange in the Low Countries. To preclude Dutch reoccupation of Kievitt's Hoeck, Winthrop rushed from Boston Lt. Gibbons, Sgt. Willard and about 20 men to erect a fort on the site. They began fortifications on November 25, 1635. This date marks the founding of Saybrook as a separate colony.

      The Pequot Indians proved to be the principal threat to the new colony. A fort with palisade was built on the locations of the present-day Fort Saybrook Memorial Park, and a stockade was erected across the narrow neck of the Saybrook Point peninsula. In 1637 a military campaign was launched from Saybrook Fort against the Pequot's near Mystic. The consequent massacre and pursuit virtually annihilated the tribe. The first childbirth of record in Connecticut took place hereon Saybrook Point on April 29, 1636, when Mary (Duercant), wife of Lion Gardiner, bore their son, David.

      Gardiner was a Lieutenant under Fairtes Engineers in Leaguers of William of Orange from Woredom, Holland June 10, 1635. He was the First Lord of the Manor of Gardiner's Island. Constructor of a Fort at Saybrook, Connecticut, 1636-1637. He was in command of the same during the Pequots War at the assault on Mystic, May 26, 1637. References: The Gardiner Family and Lordship and Manor of Gardiner's Island,by David Gardiner New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol 23,1892 pp160. Mary Deureant, wife of Lion Gardiner, (Gardiner Bible Extract),by Frederick D. Thompson, L.L.D., New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. 31, 1900 pp 47-48. Conkling Family of East Hampton, Long Island, New York, by H.L. Merseau. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. 27, 1896,pg153. Genealogy of the Mulford Family, by William Ramsen Mulford, New England Historical and Genealogical Record, Vol. 34, 1880, pg 176. East Hampton Town Record, Vol 3, pp 190, 326. Lion Gardiner Index of Ancestors, Sec. of the Colonial Wars, Published by Authority of the general assembly, 1922, pp 190-191. Will of Thomas Mulford, of East Hampton, Long Island, New York (Suffolk County). Collection of the New York Historical Society, 1894 pg 102. Compiled by Major Louis DuBois March 27, 1948.

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      Lion Gardiner lived in one of the grand epochs of modern times; that which witnessed the rise of the Republic in Holland, the establishment of the Commonwealth in England, and the colonization of the Puritans in New England. He was born in the days of Queen Elizabeth, the House of Sturart. In the struggle between the King and Parliament, he adhered to the Parliament party; was a dissenter, and friend of the Puritans.

      Volunteering to maintain the Republican standard in Holland, he went thither with English allies under Lord Vere in the time of Charles I. Here he became Lieutenant of Engineers and Master of works of Fortification in the legers of the Prince of Orange in the Low Countries. While there, eminent Puritans, acting for a company of Lords and gentlemen approached him with an offer to go to New England in company with John Winthrop Jr. build a Fort with houses for men of Quality expecting to settle there, and lay out a town on the new plantation in project at the mouth of Connecticut River. The offer was accepted through the persuasion of Hugh Peters, pastor of a Church of English exiles at Rotterdam, and John Davenport a dissenting minister from London. He was to receive 100 pounds per annum for a term of four years, himself and family furnished transportation, and subsistence, to the place of destination, to serve the company only in the drawing, ordering and making of a city, town and Fort of defence, under direction of John Winthrop the younger.

      On 10 July 1635 Lion Gardiner left Worden, taking passage at Rotterdam for London, and on 16 August set sail for New England, being 3 months and 10 days from Gravesend to Boston. Early in 1636 the good ship "Batchelor" of twenty-five tons, which had carried himself and family safely from Holland to England and across the Atlantic, through many tempests, bore them safely to their destination. The passengers are mentioned as 12 men and 2 women with freight for the construction of the Fort. Iorn work for two drawbridges; consisting of 62 staples, 40 staple hooks for Port-cullis, 4 chains, 10 boults, 4 plates, 8 chain-clasps, 4 under-hinges, 23 1/2 yards of red flagg-stuff, small lines and a wheel-barrow are mentioned. Lieutenant Gardiners household consisted of himself aged 36, his wife Mary aged 34, Elizabeth Collett, maid servant age 23, and William Jope workmaster aged 40, who all brought certificates from a Calvinistic church in Holland.

      With the men and means at his command, a Fort of square hewn timber, with ditch and palisade, was soon consturcted; that could not be successfully assailed by approaches on firm ground. After commanding the fortress for four years, laying out into squares the entire acreage within the Neck-Gate, perambulating and surveying the country fro ten miles around, balzing trees and setting up mere-stones to mark the town-boundry, Lion Gardiner of trading closth from the Montauk Indians, an island laying adjacent to what is now the town of Easthampton on Long Island and which now bears his nam, he removed thither with his family; taking soldiers from the Fort to defend, and being under cultivation the 3000 acres his purchase comprised. It was the earliest English settlement within the limits of present State of New York.

      In Wyandance, a younger brother of the grand Sachem who lived on Shelter Island, he found a trusted friend. Gardiners Island being open to Indian depredations without such an ally, would have been a more hazardous spot than Saybrook Fort menace by 700 Pequot warriors. By such friendly relations, he was able to foil conspiracies against English settlements of older date. After 13 years on the Island, he removed to East-Hampton, where he died in 1656 aged 63 years. The Island which he gave to his wife, she bequeathed to her eldest son David; "en-tail" to the first male heirs following forever. Right to the Island was confirmed by grant from the Earl of Sterling, whose patent included territory in which it was embraced, after the islands of the Sound passed to New Netherlands. Under the grant, David Gardiner could make such laws as he pleased, for civil and church government; if "according to God and King."

      In 1664, the English having dispossed the Dutch at New Netherlands, Gardiner obtained from Governor Nichols a new grant, for a quitrent of 5 pounds a year. In 1683, the Island was attached to the County of Suffolk for taxable purposes. David Gardiner feeling aggrieved, petioned the Governor for relief; praying for an Independent Jurisdiction for the Island. Governor Dougans confirmatory grant, created the Island in 1686, "One Lordship and Manor of Gardiners Island". Practically this did not change anything, as the Island was created a Manor by the Earl of Sterlings grant to Davids frather Lion Gardiner. The original document conferring this title, with the unique seal of the Province, is a trophy still preserved; also the Geneva Bible with its family record in Lion Gardiners handwritting. Thus the early proprietors were authorized to call themselves "American Lords"
    Person ID I813157  7_families
    Last Modified 8 Aug 2011 

    Father Lionel Gardiner,   b. 1573, Of, Stepney, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Stepney, London, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Mother Elizabeth Woodhouse,   b. Abt 1579, Stepney, London, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1621  (Age ~ 42 years) 
    Married 3 Dec 1593  Stepney, London, London, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F295581  Group Sheet

    Family Mary Willemsen Deurcant,   b. 1601, Of Woerden, , Holland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1665, East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 64 years) 
    Married 10 Jul 1635  Woerden, Zuid Holland, Netherlands Find all individuals with events at this location  [5, 6
    Children 
     1. Sarah D. Gardiner,   b. Abt 1637, Saybrook, Middlesex, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
    +2. David Gardiner,   b. 29 Apr 1636, Saybrook, Middlesex, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Jul 1689, Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 53 years)
    +3. Mary Gardiner,   b. 30 Aug 1638, Saybrook Fort, , Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 5 Jun 1727, East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 88 years)
     4. Elizabeth Gardiner,   b. 14 Sep 1641, Saybrook, Middlesex, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Feb 1657, East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 15 years)
     5. Margaret Gardiner,   b. Sep 1643, Saybrook, Middlesex, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     6. Jeremiah Gardiner,   b. Abt 1645, Saybrook, Middlesex, Connecticut Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
    Last Modified 16 Sep 2006 
    Family ID F295570  Group Sheet

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 10 Jul 1635 - Woerden, Zuid Holland, Netherlands Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - Oct 1665 - East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 5 Oct 1665 - East Hampton, Long Island, Suffolk, New York Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Headstones
    Lion Gardiner Tomb
    Lion Gardiner Tomb

  • Sources 
    1. [S7855] Mulford's in America, a Quarterly Newsletter, Joan Black Lund, (Published by Joan Black Lund, Jun 1985 - Feb 1992.), Vol 1, Issue 4, pg 111 (Reliability: 3).

    2. [S7736] A chronicle of everyday people, Catherine Marshall Gardiner, ([S.l.] : UMI; out-of-print books on demand, [199-?]. Book #929.273 G168gc), Book #929.273 G168gc., 23: (Reliability: 3).

    3. [S7608] International Genealogical Index(R), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (Copyright (c) 1980, 2002), citing microfilm 455322, downloaded 10 Oct 2005 (Reliability: 3).

    4. [S7736] A chronicle of everyday people, Catherine Marshall Gardiner, ([S.l.] : UMI; out-of-print books on demand, [199-?]. Book #929.273 G168gc), Book #929.273 G168gc., 24: (Reliability: 3).

    5. [S7736] A chronicle of everyday people, Catherine Marshall Gardiner, ([S.l.] : UMI; out-of-print books on demand, [199-?]. Book #929.273 G168gc), Book #929.273 G168gc., 22, 24: (Reliability: 3).

    6. [S7608] International Genealogical Index(R), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (Copyright (c) 1980, 2002), downloaded 10 Oct 2005 (Reliability: 3).